Enzymes Signaling Proteins Extracellular Ligands Signaling Reagents Antibodies




Enzymes

Enzymes

Active Histone Deacetylases, Active Kinases, Active Phosphatases, Active Phosphodiesterases
Antibody

Antibodies

Isoform Specific Antibodies, Primary Antibodies, Secondary Antibodies, Tag Antibodies


Cell Signaling Reagents

Cell Signaling Reagents

Cellular Proteins, Peptide Substrates, Reagents Sirtuin Proteins, Unactive Kinases
Compound Profiling

Service Offering

Compound Selectivity Profiling, Custom Protein Development


Enzymes

Biochemical reactions in cells are catalyzed by a diverse set of functional proteins called enzymes and represent the fundamental processes that control all aspects of cell behaviour and physiology. Enzymes can modulate (i.e., increase or decrease) the rates of a biochemical reaction without being altered in the process. In a biochemical reaction, the molecule at the beginning of the process is called a substrate and it is converted into a different molecule called the product.


The activity of an enzyme can be regulated by different factors. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity while activators are molecules that increase activity. There are many classes of enzymes in any given cell and the enzymes are usually under stringent cellular control since defects in these can have deleterious consequences for the cell. The rate and efficiency of a biochemical reaction is determined by the expression level and the activity state of the appropriate enzyme. A given enzyme can exist in both an "active" and "inactive" state as well as "high" and "low" expression levels in the cell. Depending on which stimuli (growth factors, cytokines or hormones) impacts a cell, this dictates which enzyme component will be turned "on" or "off" and what biochemical reaction will occur.


Biochemical reactions are reversible in nature and different enzymes can catalyze the forward and reverse direction of a given reaction. The ability of enzymes to catalyze a biochemical reaction is an ideal characteristic that has been extensively exploited for drug discovery efforts. Majority of the drugs discovered to date inhibit or activate a given enzyme target and this in turn ultimately determines the effect of a given drug.


There are many types of enzymes in a cell and this includes signalling enzymes (such as protein kinases, protein phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, histone deacteylases) that are involved in post translational modification of proteins and cellular metabolites; house-keeping enzymes that are involved on maintenance and survival of a cell; enzymes involved in growth, division and differentiation of a cell. SignalChem currently offers the following enzymes: active protein kinases, active protein phosphatases, active phosphodiesterases (PDE) and active histone deacetylases (HDAC).

Antibodies

Antibodies or immunoglobulins are heavy (~150 kDa) globular plasma proteins that are produced by the white blood cells of the immune system. Antibodies form a protective mechanism for the body and function to identify and bind with high affinity foreign objects or antigens (such as viruses and bacteria). Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system.


Antibodies are large y-shaped proteins with a basic structure comprising of two large heavy chains and two small light chains connected by disulfide bonds. Each antibody has a variable region or V region and a constant region or C region and they can have sugar chains added to some of their amino acid residues. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess.


In mammals there are five main isotypes of antibodies ( IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region called hypervariable region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures to recognize an equally large variety of antigens.


Apart from their protective function in the body, antibodies have also been very useful as selective drug candidates, diagnostic agents, imaging tools and carrier vehicles for delivery of other drugs in the body. Furthermore, antibodies have also played an important role in the understanding of cellular architecture and signalling pathways and can be utilized in multiple ways. Antibodies can be used for protein detection by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and ELISA. In addition, antibodies can also be used for protein purification and immobilization.


Within the Antibodies category, SignalChem currently offers Isoform Specific Antibodies, Primary Antibodies, Secondary Antibodies and Tag Antibodies.

Signaling Reagents

Signal transduction, or the relay of information inside cells, is a fundamental process that determines the health of the cell and the body, and as a consequence, is an area of immense scientific pursuit. Signal transduction is a very complex and yet very controlled process that incorporates many diverse signalling pathways, enzymes and proteins which orchestrate the well being of the cell. Both extra- and intra-cellular factors can modulate or regulate the many diverse signalling pathways, enzymes and proteins in both a positive and negative manner.


The molecular understanding of the networking of the different enzymes and proteins within different signalling pathways has attracted a lot of recent attention since it is a well known fact that defects in signalling pathway components is the direct cause of more than 400 human diseases. Therefore, Signaling Reagents which incorporates proteins, peptides and other reagents are useful tools for understanding basic cell function and disease state.


The signalling proteins that play a role in protein:protein interaction, can act as a scaffold for protein complexes, can modulate enzyme activity or can act as secondary messengers are important tools that can be used to decipher the architecture of signalling pathways. The use of signaling reagents thus allows better understanding of cellular processes such as cell growth, division, differentiation, migration, invasion and cell death. The signaling reagents are useful in basic research and understanding of cell function, in validation studies of key signalling pathways, in assay development for drug discovery effort, as substrate for upstream enzyme targets and as agents for modulating enzyme activity.


SignalChem currently offers the following Signaling Reagents: Cellular Proteins, Unactive Kinases, Peptide Substrates and Reagents for enzymatic assays.

Service Offering

SignalChem offers a broad range of research bioreagents and services including custom protein development and compound profiling. One of the main benefits of working with SignalChem is that through its 50 years of combined experience, our scientific team has the expertise to produce recombinant enzymes and proteins in various expression systems to meet your specifications. Our compound profiling group can assist with the development and optimization of compounds by screening against a single enzyme target or a panel of enzyme targets to establish the specificity of the compound. Compounds can be screened against active enzyme targets such as protein kinases, phosphatases, phosphodiesterases and histone deacetylases. There are over 375 targets in our screening panel and we are continuously expanding our offering to better serve your scientific needs.



Recent Newsletter Articles

UCell Death and Immune Response (Volume 9, Issue 1)

The contributions of different cell death mechanisms to avoid cancer or degenerative diseases remain to be defined. Particularly in cancer, where defects in cell death are widespread and promote tumor progression and treatment resistance. The restoration of cell death pathways in these conditions is an important therapeutic goal. Moreover, distinct cell death modalities may remain immunologically silent or trigger an immune response, by mechanisms that are still unknown. The regulations and the pathogenic dysfunctions of distinct cell death mechanisms and immune responses present new therapeutic strategies against cancer cell induction.



Colon Cancer Biology (Volume 8, Issue 6)

Colon Cancer is the second commonest cause of cancer mortality and the third commonest cause of cancer in the western world. Several environmental factors are recognized to increase its incidence such as increased red meat and saturated fat consumption, as well as a sedentary occupation with a corresponding lack of physical activity. Notably, colorectal cancer (CRC) is one where screening has had, and will continue to have, an extraordinarily large role to play; timely colonoscopy in patients shown to have occult (unseen) bleeding, with removal of polyps has been shown to significantly reduce mortality. However, almost 50% of patients with CRC present at an advanced stage, prompting the need for better understanding its biology.



Research Milestone-Highly Active Sirtuins (Volume 8, Issue 5)

Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that have a NAD+ deacetylase and/or ADP-ribosyl transferase activity. The 7 members of sirtuins (SIRT1 through SIRT7) post-translationally modify a number of cellular proteins, affecting cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, genomic stability, tumorigenesis, oxidative stress response, energy metabolism and other cellular processes. Although there is no direct evidence for the role of sirtuins in extending lifespan in mammals, various mouse models show that small molecules targeting SIRT proteins may treat age-associated diseases including diabetes, cancer and cardiac dysfunction.

Product Types
Enzymes
Enzymes Active Acetyltransferases Active Acetyltransferases
Enzymes Active Arginine Deiminases Active Arginine Deiminases
Enzymes Active Histone Deacetylases Active Histone Deacetylases
Enzymes Active Kinase Mutants Active Kinase Mutants
Enzymes Active Kinases Active Kinases
Enzymes Active Methyltransferases Active Methyltransferases
Enzymes Active Phosphatases Active Phosphatases
Enzymes Active Phosphodiesterases Active Phosphodiesterases
Antibodies
Antibodies Isoform Specific Antibodies Isoform Specific Antibodies
Antibodies Modification Antibodies Modification Antibodies
Antibodies Phospho Specific Antibodies Phospho Specific Antibodies
Antibodies Primary Antibodies Primary Antibodies
Antibodies Secondary Antibodies Secondary Antibodies
Antibodies Tag Antibodies Tag Antibodies
Biochemical Compounds
Biochemical Compounds Kinase Activators Kinase Activators
Biochemical Compounds Kinase Inhibitors Kinase Inhibitors
Biochemical Compounds siRNA Controls siRNA Controls
Biochemical Compounds siRNA Sets siRNA Sets
Signaling Proteins
Signaling Proteins Acetyl/Methyltransferases Acetyl/Methyltransferases
Signaling Proteins Adaptor Proteins Adaptor Proteins
Signaling Proteins Apoptosis Proteins Apoptosis Proteins
Signaling Proteins Arginine Deiminases Arginine Deiminases
Signaling Proteins Cell Cycle Proteins Cell Cycle Proteins
Signaling Proteins Cell Stress & Chaperone Proteins Cell Stress & Chaperone Proteins
Signaling Proteins Cellular Proteins Cellular Proteins
Signaling Proteins Deacetylase/Demethylases Deacetylase/Demethylases
Signaling Proteins Dioxygenases Dioxygenases
Signaling Proteins Fructose Kinases Fructose Kinases
Signaling Proteins G-Proteins G-Proteins
Signaling Proteins Lysyl Oxidases Lysyl Oxidases
Signaling Proteins Microtubule/Actin Associated Proteins Microtubule/Actin Associated Proteins
Signaling Proteins Protein Kinases Protein Kinases
Signaling Proteins Tau Proteins Tau Proteins
Signaling Proteins Transcription Proteins Transcription Proteins
Signaling Proteins Ubiquitin Proteins Ubiquitin Proteins
Signaling Proteins Unactive Kinases Unactive Kinases
Signaling Reagents
Signaling Reagents Assay Reagents Assay Reagents
Signaling Reagents Oligo Substrates Oligo Substrates
Signaling Reagents Peptide Substrates Peptide Substrates
Signaling Reagents Protein Substrates Protein Substrates
Extracellular Ligands
Extracellular Ligands Chemokines Chemokines
Extracellular Ligands Cytokines Cytokines
Extracellular Ligands Growth Factors Growth Factors
Discovery Services
Compound Selective Profiling Compound Selective Profiling
Custom Protein Development Custom Protein Development

Research Categories
AKT/PKB Pathway AKT/PKB Pathway
Angiogenesis Angiogenesis
Apoptosis/Autophagy Apoptosis/Autophagy
Cancer Cancer
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Disease
Cell Cycle Cell Cycle
Cellular Stress Cellular Stress
Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinases Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinases
ERK/MAPK Pathway ERK/MAPK Pathway
Inflammation Inflammation
Invasion/Metastasis Invasion/Metastasis
JAK/STAT Pathway JAK/STAT Pathway
JNK/SAPK Pathway JNK/SAPK Pathway
Lipid Kinases Lipid Kinases
Metabolic Disorder Metabolic Disorder
Neurobiology Neurobiology
NfkB Pathway NfkB Pathway
p38 Pathway p38 Pathway
Phosphatases Phosphatases
Phosphodiesterases Phosphodiesterases
PKA/PKC Pathway PKA/PKC Pathway
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Ser/Thr Kinases Ser/Thr Kinases
WNT Signaling WNT Signaling
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New Products
Available in December:
ATR Protein
BCR-RET Mutant, Active
DDR1 Mutant (S496A), Active
DNAPK Protein
ERK3 (MAPK6) Protein
FIP1L1-PDGFR alpha Mutant, Active
GOPC-ROS1 Mutant, Active
LRRK2 Mutant (Y1699G), Active
NPM1-ALK Mutant, Active
NRBP1 Protein
TPM3-ROS1 Mutant, Active
Previous:
ALK3 Mutant (Q233D), Active November (2014)
ALK2 Mutant (PF197_198L), Active October (2014)
AXIN1 Protein September (2014)
ANKK1 (SGK288), Active August (2014)
JX-401 July (2014)
ADCK1 Protein June (2014)
Tau-383 (N352H) Protein May (2014)
PP1/PP2A Substrate April (2014)
AMPK (A1/B2/G1), Active March (2014)
GAPDH Positive Control siRNA February (2014)
ALK, Active January (2014)
MET Mutant (D1228N), Active December (2013)


Enzymes, Signaling Proteins, Extracellular Ligands, Signaling Reagents, Antibodies






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