Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic conversion of arginines into citrullines (citrullination). Humans have five PADs (1-4 and 6) and these are widely expressed in the body.
Citrullination is required for a wide range of biological functions including epigenetic modifications. PAD4 is responsible for promoting chromatin decondensation via the citrullination of histone tails. Over-expression or over-activity of PAD4 can lead to the aberrant production of proteins, which include cytokines. Excess cytokine levels are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. PADs have been studied as a promising drug targets for the treatment of arginine-auxotrophic tumors such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and melanomas.
SignalChem offers all five mammalian PADs and a PAD Cocktail to facilitate studies on this interesting class of enzymes.